Archive for July 19, 2007


– P S Khual
1 Samuel 16-17
Have we ever wondered why we may be facing obstacles and hindrances in life? They often result in hesitation to move on. These issues are never silent, or benign but come back to taunt us and hinder our progress as a Christian. There is no point in being in denial or ignoring the fact. David killed a giant and gave us insights into killing our own giants (obstacles) that stand between us and the life God has promised us. We must come to a point where we say “enough is enough!” So let’s take lesson from David and be ready for ‘the life’ (John 10:10) that God has promised us. It is through us that the Lord wants to uphold and Glorify His name.

Do a good job – 1 Sam 16:18-23

Before David met Goliath he served his father and looked after his family’s sheep and then he served Saul by playing the harp whenever the king was tormented. It says that Saul sent word to Jesse, saying, “Allow David to remain in my service, for I am pleased with him.” Never underestimate the power of credibility. How are we doing with our responsibilities? Are the people in our world ‘pleased with us.’ This may seem a huge challenge, we may feel justified in letting everything fall apart, but our responsibilities are just that, our responsibility. Let’s look at our day and ask what needs doing and determine to do it well.

“Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men, since you know that you will receive an inheritance from the Lord as a reward. It is the Lord Christ you are serving.” (Col 3:23,24)

Turn up – 1 Sam 17: 12 -20

David was actually physically present at the battlefield. We cannot overcome our obstacles unless we are ready to acknowledge the situation. Many of us deny, ignore or try and speak positive things about it, hoping the problem will go away. The fact is that our obstacles (hindrances, something that keeps us from living Christ-like life) are real. No battle can be won unless we ‘turn up’ in our heart and mind and prepare to engage it. We’ve got to acknowledge the problem and prepare to face it. The Lord promises us his presence and provision even through the valley of the shadow of death. (Psalm 23)

See past other peoples opinions – 1 Sam 17:28-39

David had his own brothers tell him to run back to his sheep. The battlefield was no place for him. When David would not leave he had the king himself tell him he could not fight the giant. Often we feel like we are out of our league. David knew two things that helped him see past other people’s opinions.

He was anointed by God.

The battle was the Lord’s.

God has given us everything we need to face the world because he won the battle of battles when he died on the cross and rose again three days later. We just need to apply that victory and see that there is a God and that He saves. God will help us see His victory as our victory no matter what other people say. It is through our victory that God wants to glorify Hs name.

Recognise what you’ve got – 1 Sam 17:34-37

David had won before. He had the confidence in his skill as proved by killing the lion and the bear. He didn’t need his family’s approval, nor the armour of the king, nor the respect of his enemy. David was confident in His God and in his ability. We can draw strength from our past experiences. God led us all this while and brought us where we are. He did not bring us all the way here for no reason. He has a purpose in us and wants us to see His victory. (Rom 8:31-32).

Get some attitude – 1 Sam 17: 40-51

David did not hesitate. He did not dwell on his inadequacies or what if I lose. David faced Goliath with full confidence that he would win and that God would deliver Goliath into his hands. When David spoke he declared to his giant exactly what was going to happen to him. It is an event from which all of us must draw encouragement.

So, let’s turn up, see past people’s opinions, see past our obstacles, acknowledge what the Lord has done for us and move ahead with the assurance that the Lord is with us and for us. It is through us that all will see His Grace and His Glory.


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Angry Manipur

By : C. Doungal
The dawn of freedom on 15th August 1947 ushered in the era with different connotations, particularly for Manipur and Naga Hills then. In Naga Hills, A.Z. Phizo declared Naga independence on 14th August ‘47 and launched freedom movement which though was considered for too advanced. For other neighbouring tribes/communities, India’s independence was looked upon as mere passing of power from whiteman (Britishers) to brown-men. Regardless of the polemics thrown around the merger issue of Manipur-whether forced, legal or illegal, it was taken as natural happening at that historical moment. With the euphoria of independence sweeping through the length and breath of India, Manipur tugged in the north-eastern corner accepted it as a fait-accompli because of the common religious ties (particularly of Hinduism) and also having faith in the safeguards provided in the merger agreement. Apart from provisions for more opportunities of employment and direct attention through central rule, the king was provided with privy purse. Manipur was made a part ‘C’ state and later a Union territory albeit sans provision to take care of hill affairs in place of Hills durbar.

Meanwhile Naga freedom movement in Naga Hills gained momentum which culminated in eruption of violent rebellion in 1956. Pandit Nehru who was then the Prime Minister dealt with much benevolence. Naga Hills was amalgamated with Tuensang Area in NEFA in 1957 and placed under External Affairs ministry. Statehood was given to Nagaland in 1963 after 16 points agreement was signed with Govt. of India in 1960. One point of the agreement provided that contiguous Naga areas could merge with consent of the people. Manipur Govt was not consulted while Assam could have been aware as Shree. B.P Chaliha was a member of Peace Committee headed by Shree. Jai Prakash Narayan. Kukis made feeble protests but they were not in any reckoning.

Insurgency in Nagaland did not stop. Rather, it spilled over to Manipur resulting in extension of ceasefire to Tamenglong and Ukhrul sub-divisions (now districts) and Mao sub-divisions (now Senapati segment). Momentum of pressure for merger receded for sometime but simmering discontentment grew in Manipur and Assam. These ultimately gave birth to UNLF/PREPAK/PLA/ULFA/KNA/KNF to counter the threat to Manipur and Assam territorial integrity. Mizos, who also realised that only violent revolt draws quicker attention and yields reward, took a similar course.

On the political front, pressure was mounting for statehood to be conferred to Manipur/Tripura. But whenever they pleaded their case before Government of India, stating that they are equally deserving, the stock answer they were given was that Nagaland is a unique and special case. Statehood to Manipur was belatedly given in 1972 and in the first Assembly general election, Naga integration was an important issue.

Mutually deterrent nature of insurgent groups inherent in their birth in Nagaland, Assam and Manipur, having created trans-border problem have thus grown more and more complex. Though NSCN (IM) is the mother of most insurgent groups, it has now become difficult for a single group to either take unilateral decision or thrash out solution with government by isolating the others. In fact, the others harbour deep-seated resentment for being relegated to secondary status despite the fact that they once considered themselves more civilized and advanced. They feel that Nagas of Manipur are lured by better opportunities available by grant of statehood to Nagaland first. They feel ignored when decisions concerning Manipur are taken behind their back. They are therefore coming out in open challenge of NSCN (IM) whom they feel are placed on a higher pedestal. They feel that they have to stand up for their wounded feelings and hurt pride. Thus there is a nagging desire to prove that they can be equally deadly.

Having no more faith that their case will be dealt with in a fair and just manner, even the civil society has joined in being belligerent this deeply embedded distrust would largely explain the psyche why such violent agitations erupted when there was extention of Cease-fire with NSCN (IM) “without territorial limits” in 2000 (which was late withdrawn) and on the killing of Thangjam Manorama in 2003 etc. to cite few examples.
Thus, violent agitations in Manipur are sometimes organised by civil organisations with backing of armed groups. At the same time, loyalties being on ethnic and communal lines, demonisation of one group is used to run down the other and breed violence. Common economic interest which can benefit all in the region are relegated to the background. The fragile law and order most of the time gets such a beating that they often break down completely. In the chaos, mobs get organised into some kind of “posse comitatus” in the form of JACs, Meira Paibis or AMADA etc. who themselves at times dispense justice.
The security forces no doubt have to perform very odious task but those in authority cannot always take the line of least resistance. It is understandable that those facing bullets in battlefields and exposed to risk of life always may not be in a position to “put on their best manners as in a dinner party”. All the same, there should not be complete breakdown of discipline or sense of fairness should not be cast away. The Armed Forces Special Power Act which is a lawless-law provides some legal protection (I wish that this abnoxious law is lifted as early as possible). Most human rights abuses by State Forces or Army including AR take place in violation of even this law.

As of today, the insurgency situation appears fluid and it will continue to remain so for some coming years. The state administration as also the Armed Forces or Para-military forces have to ensure that blatant violations of human rights do not take place.

Most hill based insurgent groups had entered into agreement with the Army for suspension of operations which to some extent is a sign of progress in the right direction. Some have political demands but others have not spelt out any. Rather some have earned notoriety mostly in kidnapping for ransom. Should they be treated as same?. Further, allegations are there about State Forces/Assam Rifles units protecting some of these groups because of gainful mutual interests. It is indeed a good thing that Army/ARs undertake many civic actions which give some healing touch but they are no substitute for being professional, firm and just. For, insurgency cannot be controlled by handing out candies alone.

The writer is a former member of the Manipur Legislative Assembly, and a member of the All India Congress Committee.

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Angry Manipur – Pt II

By: C Doungel

The main North-east region is formed by Brahmaputra Valley having Himalayan ranges, Naga hills, Garo-Khasi hills etc. sloping down into it. Shaped like a jewel, Manipur is cut up into a smaller but separate sub-region with valley in the middle and surrounded by hill ranges. The geographical structure is a factor which conditioned its political strategy and survival so long. Though serving as buffer kingdom, the eastern gateway through Kabow Valley which all along had been a bone of contention between Manipur and Myanmar (Burma), had frequently seen invading armies marching through as also defending armies repulsing and at times, advancing deep inside Myanmar. The importance of this eastern gateway had been ignored till recently.

Recounting annals of Manipur History as obtained from various sources, the present king (dynasty) i.e. ruler of Imphal, emerged as the overlord after fierce rivalries and wars, as king of Manipur. The kingdom would have contained the dominant community of assimilated cognate tribes (Meiteis) as the mainstream and periphery tribal units and villages in the hills. The king himself was primarily a military leader and his skill and prowess in war were essential in retaining power and kingdom. Custom based on tradition was the law and the king was the supreme arbiter. Though he was assisted by a court of elders of the Salais/tribes, chiefs/headmen etc., chief priest (maibas) and military leader were two most intimate officers. While Chief priest acted as adviser and astrologer, the military leader has to defend, lead campaigns and also act as security adviser. Thus, a rudimentary administrative set-up with direct rule over easily accessible valley areas was established while hills, because of their remoteness and difficulty in access were left autonomous. They were invited to important functions during which gifts were exchanged. They also provide fighting men during wars or workforce as and when required.

With consolidation of the kingdom, the society gradually shed their primitive mooring and became more organised. It is presumed (and correctly so) that the people then were not conscious of caste at all because hereditary professions were not there in the initial stages. Even in the same household, works were distributed and performed according to convenience. Three classes of people i.e. aristocracy or warriors, the priest and common people made up the society. This type of social composition existed in most societies emerging from tribal societies to a bigger community through assimilation of other tribes too. There was no rigid system of limiting marriages or taboos regarding social mixing, eating together etc. within these classes.

The nature of agrarian society remained unaffected by industrial revolution or any movement till the advent of Vaisnavite sect of Hinduism. Conversion of meiteis including the king brought radical changes in religious belief and social attitudes. All sorts of attempts were then made to somehow link the history of Manipur to the grand vedic tradition and even eradicate historical facts by destroying evidences. “Puya Meithaba” was one such outrageous example which caused irreparable loss to Manipur literature and culture. This resulted also in distortion of Manipur history. In fact, there had been attempts to create link to vedic origin of the priestly class in support of the theory that even Manipur is an appendage to Aryan racial group. A myth was even created in the interpretation of vedic scriptures (Mahabharata) that Arjun took as his wife the princess of Manipur which was found to be a reference to one kingdom in Kalinga. (Orissa-Andhra).

It would be interesting to note that the main factor leading towards existence of caste was treatment of Dasas (no-aryans) as beyond social mixing. The initial reasons could have been just fear of outsiders as well as of assimilation and loss of identity. With permanent settlement taking place-agriculture, trade and commerce growing, social values changed and differences in society became more pronounced. With emergence of the king as the dominant power the warrior class naturally enjoyed first rank. However, the priests being aware of the significance of great authority that can be wielded by the highest caste, managed to usurp that position by claiming that they alone can intercede in bestowing divine power to the king. They fully exploited the weakness of most hereditary monarchies being based on the divine will theory. Conversion to Hinduism, was also followed by extreme caste movement directed mostly against non-conformists meiteis (Sanamahi) than hill people which led to creation of artificial barriers and fragmentation of society. In the hills where Christianity was spreading, the effect of caste system was not felt much. Be that as it may, the reality is that in Manipur the twain – the occidental and the oriental are meeting. And leaving aside the religious aspect, the greatest gift of Hinduism had been the development of Manipur culture, particularly the Rash Lila dances which had been given the polishing by Guru Rabindranath Tagore himself. This now occupies an exalted position equal to other Indian classical dances like Bharat Natyam, Kathakali or Odissi etc.

Till India’s independence and as long as Manipur still remained a separate princely state, contacts with people of the mainland was mostly during pilgrimage or some people going out for studies. In course of such limited contacts, it had not been possible to fathom the attitudes and prejudices fo the people. Mainland India was considered a holy-land where Varanasi, Mathura, Brindavan etc. are situated along the banks fo the holy river Ganges and thought about her are associated with pilgrimage and worship. Such cherished thoughts changed quickly when actual social contacts started. One begins discovering the real human nature, their attitudes and prejudices. Because of lack of knowledge by the general Indian masses about Manipur till lately, they are taken to be tribals or foreigners of South-east Asian countries.

Post independent political treatment to Manipur and other related developments had been the subject matter of much discussions in various forums. Most Meitei Hindus found out that the social attitude of so-called mainland Aryan Hindus is not as they would do to one of their own kind but to outsiders. The same evil of caste that pained Gautama Buddha which made him emphasise on the equality of all men in his teachings is being experienced. These pent up feelings in the sub-conscious mind is one of the cause of alienation. Further, lack of development resulted in stagnation of the economy causing shrinkage in the job market. On the other hand, burgeoning unemployment and rising expectations add to frustration of the people. More favourable political treatment to the neighbouring states like Nagaland and Mizoram hastened the process of de-Indianisation in Manipur where as in the neighbouring tribal areas of Nagaland, Mizoram etc., gradual Indianisation process is taking place.

We have seen how insurgent groups aimed at protecting the people and Manipur territorial integrity/ancestral land sprang up. They could draw support from large number of public initially but with passing years, they have lost their dedication. They now fight among themselves or with the security force and also use all kinds of dubious method to keep their hold on the public. Their mainstay has now become extortion thereby throwing the state into anarchy. The beleaguered state government is hardly able to protect the capital city/district headquarters or national highways. Civil organisations like AMADA/MEELAL having links with insurgents or coming up on their own are enforcing prohibition or doing moral policing or promoting the development of Meitei literature. The state had been Talibanised by banning Hindi films and songs, enforcing dress codes/Meitei Mayek and banning consumption of certain items considered harmful or undesirable behavior. I am not questioning the merit of these actions but pointing out that every one taking the law into their hands undermines the constitution and the position of legitimate government. May be, the government we now have though stable is unable to win confidence of the public and command respect but the role of such civil societies ought to be complimentary. Similarly organisations like UCM/AUCO/UNC act in a manner more royal than the king and their extremism and chauvinistic actions divide society> Are they responsible enough to be entrusted with mundane things like determining course of action relating to future of people of the state. The aggressive and browbeating actions of Meitei insurgents; the highflying and unrelenting behaviour of NSCN (IM) and the mercenary conduct of Kuki militants (KNA) have made it almost impossible for people to live and pursue their professions without interference. Those who can afford moved out ot he state to study, get vocal or specialised training in some fields while there are others also who simply live outside for the time being.

I like to mention that it is our rich human resource which provides the silver lining. It has produced world famous athletes and sportspersons like Ms Kiranbala, Kunjarani, Dingko, Mary Kom, Sunitibala and many in football and hockey players etc. and the list could go on. They have not only done us proud but made Manipur known all over India and elsewhere.

There are also many who are working in central government and private establishments outside. It is relevant to observe here that the so-called diasporas regarding entry into the IT sector is a sign of our taking part in the global society. Outsourcing which has made this possible is the fruit of economic reforms started by our respected Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh when he was the Finance Minister It is a matter of pride that our boys and girls have ventured into the new brave world, carved out a small niche and are able to hold their ground. The simple message they are trying to give is that without having to go through the cumbersome process of hunting for jobs in Manipur which demand hefty payments together with the usual ‘Wanomba’, they got their jobs through merit. They have ceased to be a burden to the state and are beginning to shine and will be in a position to contribute something for Manipur in due course. May be they, as also those others working outside will play the role of helping the state in the same manner as what is know as money order economy of Kerala or they can play the role of accelerating economic activities like the NRIs through their remittances. As long as they do not severe ties with their root or nativity they are still an extended part of our society and inestimable asset.

It is relevant to observed that how we plan to develop and use the eastern gateway which only used to leave trials of blood behind marching or retreating armies in the past is something on which we should seriously apply our mind. Have we the vision to take advantage of the ‘look east’ policy and create conducive atmosphere to facilitate development of trade and commerce, thereby converting the route of miseries to one of prosperity? We have to realise that understanding and learning to work together will benefit all rather than cut-throat rivalries born of pettiness and hatred.

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Lamka Post July 19, 2007

Mr. Thanglianpau thah in om

Lamka July 18: Lamka Police apan thukiza dan in zan nitaklam dak 5:00 vel in meltheihlouh mi 5 in Mr. Thanglianpau (25) s/o. Khamgen of Kangvai Jubilee Veng a inn ua pan vapikhia in nitak dak 8:00 vel in Torbung Govindpur ah sisa in taisan hi uhi.

Thutut kingahdan in, hiai toh kisai in Moirang Police te zan nitak dak 10:00 vel in theihsak in om ua himahleh tuzing kal dak 6:00 vel in siluang vala uhi. Misihna mun Lamka Police te thuneihna area ahihkhak ziak in Lamka Police in tuni zinglam dak 9:00 vel in Lamka police in Moirang Police khut apan in siluang vala in Lamka Damdawi Inn a Morgue a koih uhi. Siluang Post mortem bawl ahihzoh in a innkuanpihte kiangah piakkhiat in om a akholam a vuiding in puakkhiat hingal hi.

Mr. Thanglianpau bel a deek ah khetna ma muhtheih in om a abil langnih ah sipawt hi. Hiai thiltung toh kisai in hiai gelh ahihtan in bangmah theih omlou a, himahleh Police in thubuaichiamteh hi. Hun paisa in hiai bang tualthahna om zeuhzeuh in Police in thubuai chiamteh zel mahleh bangmah muhkhiak om manglou hi’n leng thutut kingah hi.

RDC a AC Copper gui kigu

Lamka July 18: Lamka Damdawi inn huangsung a Regional Diagnostic Centre a Air Conditioner kithuah teng a Copper wire teng apaisa July 16, 2007 zan kal in kigu mangvek hi.

Hiai guktakna toh kisai in Medical Superintendent Dr. M. Lachinkhai in July 17, 2007 in SP/CCpur kiangah report bawl in Police in thubuai chiamteh hi.

Hiai gukmang a om Copper wire te AC khat a kibulh in Rs. 7000/- val man a, Regional Diagnostic Centre a CD4 Count Machine koihna room ah AC 3 koih hi a huaibanah CT Scan room ah AC 2 koih in om hi. Hiai AC kikoihteng a Copper wire innpolam a dawkkhe teng gukmang ahihziakin AC teng zattheihlouh in om hi.

Tulai in Lamka Damdawi Inn ah khamtheihhih gutapawl laang in kal paisa sung in damdawi inn sung a Dailenbuuk a tuilawng hekna teng leng gumang gai ua tu’n Damdawi inn a Overhead Tanky ah tuikholtheihlouh suak hi. Regional Diagnostic Centre nunglam leng khamtheih hihpawlte kikapna munpi suak a huai ah Proxyvon Capsule hawng leh Syringe tamtak muh theih ding om hi.

NCRF proposal khak ding

Lamka July 18: Natural Calamity Relief Fund toh kisai in District Level Relief Committee in tuban ni 2 nung in relief proposal Constituency bangzah hiam a Relief Commissioner kiangah pelut ding hi. NCR Fund bel khokheeng, Tuilian leh adangdang ziak a louma a lohsamte kiang a panpihna piak hi a , Hectre khat ah Rs.1000/- zel a piak hiding uhi.

CMO in Explanation call

Lamka July 18: Chief Medical Officer/CCpur in amah nuai a sem ANM te’n Monthly Health and Sanitation Observation Report of June 2007 a bawllouh ziak un a kha loh uh heentaang sak hi. Huaibanah tuni apan ni 5 sung a abawllouh ziak uh hilhchetna pe ding in theisak hi.

Inter-School Football Tourney 2007-08

Lamka July 18: Youth Affairs & Sports saina in State Level Inter-School Football Tournament 2007-08 hongtung ding August 2007 kha bul in Imphal a Khuman Lampak ah neih hiding hi.

Hiai hun ah Lamka apan District ai-oh in Under-17 Boys ah team 1 leh Girls ah team 1 tuak leh Under-14 Boys ading in Team 1 va kimawl ding uhi. August 1, 2007 in Imphal tungkim ding ua August 2, 2007 in Medical examination nei ding ua, August 3, 2007 in March Past nei in kimawlna pan ngal ding uhi.

Semtu ding tamtak hong kisuan

Lamka July 18: Medical Department nuai a semtu tamtak CCpur District a sem ding in zan zek in suan in om uhi. Huai Order dungzui in Pharmacist 2, Non Medical Asst.1, MHW 8, MHS 1, Opthalmic Asst.1, Health Educator 3, Driver 5, UDC 6, LDC 6, Lab.Tech. 2, BCG Tech. 1 Mech.-cum- Driver 1 leh Sta.Asst.1 banah FHS 27 te District sung a muntuamtuam a semding in hong kisuan uhi.

Hunchiam omlou Bandh 2 kizom

Lamka July 18: CCpur District Students’ Union (CDSU) in CCpur District in Mautam kial doulai a Phaijang helpawlte mipi khual nei hetlou a percent a lak uh lungkimlou a District Quota bukimtak muh matan District sung hunchiam omlou Bandh bawl ding tunitak zankim (00:00 Hrs.)a kipanta hi. CDSU in bandh hunsung in Medical Department, Security leh Press/Media te kia khahkol ahihdan taklang uhi. Damdawi inn leh OPD bel ngeina bang in kihong ding hi. Huailou in Tedim Road Upper Bus Owners Joint Committee in leng Election hunlai a gari zatman kimtak a muhlouh ziak in July 20, 2007 apan in hunchiam omlou Chakka bandh bawl ding uhi.

KSO in thusuah bawl

Lamka July 18: Mrs. Lamneilhing w/o Seichon of T. Phaijol, phaijang helpawlte’n a sualluihna uh toh kisai in KSO leh Chief Minister makaih in PHED Minister Pu TN Haokip leh IFCD Minister Pu Biren ten July 15, 2007 in CM Chamber ah kihouna nei in kilemna bawl uhi.

KSO thusuak in a taklat dan in, vangsiatna thuak Mrs. Lamneilhing leh a inkuante kivakna ding Manipur in a kin theipen a scheme khat a ngaihtuah sak ding, T. Phaijol khua a Assam Rifle post koih ding chih leh hiai bang thil a pian nawnlouhna dia government in pan alak ding chihte in kilem uhi.

Piangsualte’n ngaihven poimoh

Lamka July 18: Social Welfare Department, Government of Manipur nuai a Financial Assistance dia ngetna pete’n zingchiang July 19-23, 2007 sung in Bliss Island, Vengnuam, New Lamka ah thuchian ngah theih ding hi.

ZDV in Fin. Deptt. lem thak

Lamka July 18: Zou Defence Volunteers in thusuah a bawl tuni a Press a kimu in a taklat dan in, ZDV sung a sumsaina ah, Zone-I ah Mr. Mohan, Mr. Roland, Mr. Clay leh Mr. Gideon te collector ding a seh ahihdan uh taklang uhi.

Thusuak in a taklat dan in, demand leh ngetnate amaute min leh seal zang in hong pai ding a, tualoute’n kuaman kuaman kithuahpih lou ding in taklang uhi.


ANSAM in Phaizang mite naktak in vau

Senapati, July (NNN): All Naga Students Association, Manipur (ANSAM) thusuak in tuni a agendan in, Naga bial a school haltungtang a kiphinna neite pawl kipahpih thu puang kawm in, a sepding umah sem ahihdan gen ua, himahleh, ANSAM in adikna uh gumtu ding lehkha poimoh bukim nei uh ahihdan zasak uhi. ANSAM thusuak in ataklatna ah, Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE) tungtang ah Manipur singtangmite’n lungkimlouhna nei ua, thil paidan diklou mah ahih ziak in Manipur CM kiang a Memorandum piak in om zia neilou ding ahi chi in, ANSAM thusuak in khauhtak in taklang hi. Phaizang mite’n Language, school curriculum leh history banah tawndan toh kisai subject a aguanlut dan te un naupang khangthak dingte lungsim pikawi ding ahihdan taklang kawm in, ANSAM in Meitei te tupdan nang zou mahmah ding ahi chi uhi.

ANSAM in bangziak a singtangmite kiang ah phut luih a, Meiteilon, Meitei Mayek, Meitei history leh Meitei culture zatkhum a om ding uhiam chi in dotna leh bawldaih uhi. Meitei mite Manipur gam leh leitang 2238 sq. kms lel luah in, bangziak athagum a singtangmite tenna 20,089 sq. kms te luahkhum sawm uhiam, Phaizangmi Meitei te’n ut ut gen in utut sa mah le uh Singtangmite a gam uapan nohkhe zoungei lou ding uh ahi chi’n ANSAM thusuak in taklang hi.

Govt in Media te leh NGO te enkhe ding

RIMS/CAO tenna Inn kap in om

Thingbaijam Dhamen

Imphal, July 18: Manipur Government in tuni a thusuah abawl dan un, Manipur ah muanna leh bitna kichiantak om theihna ding in Media te poimohna te theikawm in agamtatdan uh enkhe ding ua, huai teng banah NGO pawlpi tuamtuam te nasep dan hoihtak a enkai ding uh ahihdan tuni in thupuan nei hi. CM makaih a Manipur cabinet meeting om ah, Manipur a thiltung tuamtuamte genkhopna om a, huai banah, National Highway-39 kepbit dingdan tanpha genna nei uh hi’n kigen hi. Dawr tamtak leh school banah Office te a helpawl in sum a ngetsekna utoh kisai leng Cabinet meeting ah genlatkhak a om hi’n kigen hi. Tukum sung chauh in NH 39 zui a tai truck 9 bang haltum dimdem a om khin hidan in kigen a, insurance company tel in dawr leh pharmacy tamtak leng helpawlte ziak in khak in om ta hi. Thusuak in agenddan in, Manipur Government in Dan leh thupiak kembit zoulou ahihna ah mipite ading in lungzin huai mahmah hi’n kigen hi.

Tuabangkalah, tuni nitaklam dak 3:15 in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Lamphal a Chief Account Officer tenna Inn. Lamphel Sanakeithel ah meltheihlouh helpawl khat in thau in va kap ua, asi leh liam omlou hidanin gen uhi.

Meghalaya Congress te ki kembit zoulou

Shillong, July 18(NNN): Meghalaya Government nuai a Minister of Higher and Technical Education lenlel R.G.Lyngdoh sanggamnu Ampareen Lyngdoh in Congress pawl taisan a United Democratic Party (UDP) pawl a zop in gen nei mahmah ding hidanin kigen a, mi tamtak in Congress pawl muangzou nawnlou in NCP leh party tuamtuam zom in Congress apan taisia uh hi’n kigen hi. Ampareen in ahihleh, maban a Meghalaya Assembly election om ding ah Laitumkhrah apan tuhsawm hidanin kigen a, aman Congress pawl in Meghalaya a kimawlpih dan uh lungkim huailou asak ziak a kitawpna pia ahihdan gen hi. Meghalaya Pradesh Congress Committee (MPCC) President O.L.Nongtdu in leng hiai thiltung pawna kawm mahmah in, Ampareen in maban a election ding chauh angaihtuahkha a eive maw chilel hi.

MNF in President election ah Vote khelou ding

Aizawl July18 (NNN): India President kitelna July 19 a om ding toh kisai in tuni’n MNF in kuamah tellou ding ahihdan un puang uhi. MNF Secretary Vanlalthaliana in thusuah a bawl in a taklat dan in, MNF in thil paidan hoihtak a suizuina a neih nung un President dia kuamah tellou a vote leng khevetlou ding uh ahihdan gen hi. Hiai bang thupukna a hong om ziak ahihleh, India Constitution 103rd Amendment bawl sawmte toh ki namnoih khak himhim leng utlouh ziak hidan in Vanlalthaliana in gen hi. 103rd Amendment bawl hileh Kristiante’ minority status hihna beiding a, Mizoram kia hilou in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Goa leh Kerela ah leng Kristiante’n minority status mansuah ding ahihziak in hiai bang thupukna la uh ahihdan gen hi.

MNF in a taklat zelna uah, MNF in minority-te napnul a kilkhat a neng-bichilh sawm UPA candidate ah vote pethei lou ding ua, independent candidate Bhairon Singh Shekhawat leng a sulnung ziak in vote petheilou ding uh ahihdan puang uhi. Central Cabinet in 103rd Amendment to the Constitution of India Bill 2004 kichi pass khinta uh a, Parliament a luikhiak ding in sam lel ta hi. Hiai Bill pen zat taktak hileh, Namniamte ading in vangtahna thupitak om ding a, Namniam te’n ahamphatna uh mansuah in Namniamte leh Namsangte a kibang in om ding uhi. National Commission for Minority Education in leng hiai 103rd amendment kichi naktak in nial uh a, Ki Ukna Danbu nuai a Article 30 naktak in kalh chi uhi. All India Catholic Union, All India Christian Council leh pawl tuamtuam in leng hiai Bill leh Amendment deihlouh thu tangkoupih khinta uhi.

Source: zogam dot com

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Zomi in World War-I

World War I (the Great War) broke out in 1914 with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria fighting against England, France, Russia, America and other nations. Britain mobilized all her human resources to add strength to her fighting troops, and she recruited soldiers and non combatants from all her colonies. In 1916, about a million soldiers and half a million non combatants from British India and Burma were sent to Mesopotamia, Iran, France and Turkey.

About four thousand Zo young men went to Europe. Their journey from Chittagong, Akyab and Rangoon took them to France, where they evacuated the wounded and loaded and unloaded military supplies going to the front. Each of them, except for those who died on the ship or in Europe, brought enough money home to pay for any bride they chose to marry.

The experiences of those who went to Europe were not easily forgotten and in some cases changed beliefs. They were impressed by the war machinery of the Europeans, as the planes, ships and guns were immense developments for the boys from Zo country. They also had endless tales of their adventures and experiences with the French women of the night. Before the Zo young men left for Europe, they had been certain that the sun rose out of the mountain ranges, but when they returned, they were convinced that the sun rose from the ocean.

The British demanded a fixed number of young able-bodied men from every clan and village for the French labour camps, and various Naga, Lusei and others joined the force in 1916. During the 1st World War, 2100 young men from Lushai Hills District, 2,000 Nagas and Zomi from Manipur Hills, and 3000 Zomi from the Chin Hills went to France voluntarily as the Allied Labour Corps. But in 1917, more men were demanded, one thousand men from each of the administrative subdivisions of Falam, Haka and Tedim. The Zo people, who had never left their country, feared that their youths would never come back, as was the case with some who had gone earlier. Moreover, the British still resented the collection of arms and slaves by the British.

Zomi in World War-II

The Second World War broke out in the year 1939 in Europe. Japan joined the war and formed an Axis with Germany and Italy. The British defence position in Burma was too weak to check the Japanese advance and so Japan occupied Burma very easily. In May, 1942, the Governor of Burma fled to Simla and established a Burmese government there. The Japanese forces released Vuamthumaung, an anti-British Zomi leader and some members of the Chin Independence Party from the Katha Jail. As soon as the Zomi politicians returned to the Zo country after crossing the dry zone of Burma on foot, they organized the Zomi freedom movement. In the meantime, Japan gave a nominal independence to Burma in 1943. Taking the opportunity the Zomi leaders declared the independence of the Zomi from the British and formed a government with Pu Vuamthumaung as its President.

Zomi Levies And The Japanese

Once Burma was overrun, the Chin Hills came under the immediate threat of Japanese occupation. In order to resist the Japanese and defend themselves a local defence force known as ‘Zomi Levies’ was formed by the British Civil Officers. Pu Vum Ko Hau, an employee of the British Government, together with the Deputy Commissioner of the Chin Hills, went from one place to another, to organize the defence force and to take up immediate measure to stop the advance of the invading force.

Accordingly, two groups of Levies, “A” and “B”, were established. The “A” Levy constituted of persons who were earlier in the army and survivors of actions in Burma. The “B” Levy was composed of military pensioners. The duty of the unit was to give proper defence in the villages. Besides these two Levies, a number of local levies were also established under different names: The Khualsim Levies, Sukte and Zaniat Levies.

Towards the end of 1942 the British troops had withdrawn from the Chin Hills. However, the Chin Hills remained protected by the members of the various local forces — the Chin Levies, the Chin Hills Battalion, the Chin Forces and the Chinwags.

Thus, without getting any support from the government members of the local levies were able to defend their areas till the end of 1943. British Officers had a very high opinion of the bravery of the Zomi whose defensive actions quite alarmed the Japanese forces who were camping near the Chin Hills.

Colonel Stevenson, Commanding Officer of the Zomi Levies Comments the remarkable contribution of the Zomi as,

“the loyalty of the Chin (Zomi) to me and my small handful of brother officers passes beliefs. At a time when the whole might of the Commonwealth was collapsing about their heads, they (Zomi) stood firm by our side facing the mortars and machine guns of the Japanese with shotguns and ancients flintlocks… with Chin (Zomi) of all ages, both men and women, accepted danger without hesitation… Their resistances to the Japanese in the critical years after 1942 may well have decided the fate of India, for the infiltration tactics which leads to the downfall of Burma were frustrated by their skills as jungle fighters.”

High-ranking Japanese officers soon recognised the activities of the Zomi. At the same time they also understood that an attack on the Zomi would not add to their cause. So between 1942 and 1943, they tried to win over the people by adopting a propaganda policy.

The Zomi refused to accept an appeal from the Japanese. Then in early May, 1943 the Japanese forces began to enter into the Chin Hills area. In spite of strong resistance from the Zomi, the Japanese forces occupied Khuikul. The Japanese forces crushed the 17th Division of the British Army and pushed them back in three directions – the west bank of Chindwin River, the Tamu area, and midway between the Imphal-Kohima roads. The focal objective of the Japanese forces was to beleaguer Imphal and gain mastery over the Imphal plains.

Thence, the Japanese forces turned their full attention on Manipur. The Japanese 15th Army with the support of the Indian National Army (INA) led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, forced their way into Manipur from the Chin Hills and Chindwin valley. In the Chin Hills, all the Zomi were evacuated to safe places to save themselves from the Japanese forces. It would not be an untruth to surmise that the Zomi of the Tedim area in the Chin Hills suffered the most “for the cause of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” as well as “for the survival of mankind from the clutch of Fascist-Axis Powers” in the Global war. The Japanese army ruled over the Zomi area which they handled with kid-gloves for nearly two years till their final withdrawal from the mainland.

Formation Of Chin Leader’s Freedom

In order to look after the interests of the undefended Zomi and save them from the oppression of the Japanese, as also the treachery of quislings who formerly belonged to the Burma Rifles and a few local traitors, an organization called the “Chin Leaders’ Freedom League’ (CLFL) was secretly formed. The names of outstanding Zomi leaders on its Executive Committee were Pu Vum Ko Hau, Chairman; Pauzakam, Khaimunmung, Vulzathang, Ginzatuang, Lunpum, Summang, Awnglin, Suktsio, and Pi Donkhoting.

It was a fact that the Japanese had forcefully used the people of Sukte and Sihzang as their labour. Strong anti-Japanese feelings led the Sukte, Sihzang and others to meet at Mualbem and form the Sukte Independence Army (SIA). Pu Hauzalian (Suangzang), Pu Thawngchinthang (Saizang) and the headmen of Gun-Gal villages were founder members of the SIA. Another anti-Japanese formation, the Sihzang Independence Army, under the leadership of Singlian and Suanglian of Sihzang, also joined hands with the Sukte Independence Army.

The resistance movement quickly spread to Ngawn, Falam, Zahau, and Haka areas. In the month of September, 1944 open rebellion against the Japanese was launched by attacking the Japanese Army units. In the meantime the Allied Forces came back and sided with the Zomi. Members of both CLFL and SIA again formed an umbrella organisation called “Free Chin”. The volunteers of the Free Chin attacked the Japanese at Mualbem, Sualim, Sung-aktuam (Thuklai) and Sakhiang (Khawsak). Chief Phutthang and his men drove the Japanese forces from Suangpi and Phunom areas. The Ngawn of Falam cleared the Japanese from the Vazang area. The Zomi attacked the base of the intelligence unit and butchered the Japanese. Field Marshall Sir William Slim aptly described the mood of the Zomi at the prospect of liberating their own country as follows:

“…The Levies were overjoyed at the prospect of liberating their own country. They took with them their families rather like the children of Israel trekking out of Egypt, dumping them in their own villages as they recaptured them one by one…”

On 17th May, 1945 the British Government issued a statement of policy in which it was declared that the 1935 Constitution would be kept in abeyance until December, 1948 and the entire responsibilities of administration would be in the hands of the Governor who would be assisted by an Executive Council. During this interim period the Government would form a Constitution making body to draft a new constitution and subsequently, they promised,

“Full self-Government to Burma within the Commonwealth; but the Scheduled areas (the Shan state and other hill areas) would remain subject to a special regime under the Governor, until such time as the inhabitants signify their desires for some suitable form of association of their territories with Burma proper”.

British Relation After World War-II

The World War II came to an end in the year 1945. By then, with the tide of war changing against them, Japan had withdrawn from the entire region of South-east Asia and the British resumed their administrative authority in the region. To the credit of British foresight, just after the end of the war, they correctly gauged the political aspirations which was developing on the Indian Sub-continent and were convinced that they would not be able to suppress the overwhelming feeling of nationalism. In the context of Burma also the British Government wanted certain political concessions so that the people of these areas (Zomi & Chin indigenous people) would have an opportunity to govern their own people. Meanwhile, on the 27th January, 1947 an agreement was signed between Attlee and Aung San to have a new Constitution of Burma. That agreement was known as the “London Agreement”.

On the basis of the provision of the London Agreement a conference was held from February 10-12, 1947 at Panglong, in Shan State. The names of the Zomi Chiefs who attended the Conference were Hlur Mung, Chief of Lumbang, Tho Za Khup, Chief of Saizang, and Kio Mang, Chief of Haka and Vum Ko Hau. Other Chiefs like Pumzamang, Thangtinlian, Vanhmung and Hluahmung, though invited they refused to attend the Conference because they did not like to join Burma. Actually, they wanted to establish Zogam, an independent Zo country. In that Conference the Burmese delegates were able to know the mind of the Zomi who had no faith in the capability of the Burman as an administrator. So Aung San, who was an honest and straightforward Burmese leader, tried to convince the Zomi delegates. He went to the extent of saying: “the Presidency of the future Union of Burma will be by turn among the various races of Burma. When Burma becomes independent, you will get the chance available in an independent, sovereign state…”

An Agreement, thereafter, was signed on February 12, 1947. The terms of the agreement were mainly confined to the modalities of the establishment of administration in the frontier areas. One important aspect of the agreement was that citizens of the Frontier areas could have the right and privilege to enjoy the fundamental principles which are provided in the Constitution of the Union of Burma. Apart from this the Agreement also accepted to provide full internal autonomy in the Frontier areas.

The terms of the Agreement, however, were not accepted by the Karens and the Zomi of the Arakan Hill Tracts. Yet the terms of the Agreement were ratified by the Shans, Kachins and the Chin Hills Zomi. This marked a turning point in the future history of the Frontier areas. After the signing of the Panglong Agreement, a Frontier Areas Enquiry Commission was constituted with an objective to find out the opinions of the people of the Frontier Areas. The following persons were the members of the Commission.

Mr. D.R.Rees-William, M.P., Chairman.

Burma Members
Frontier area Members

• The Hon’ble U Tin Tut
• Thakin Nu Sima
• U Khin Maung Gale
• Saw Myint Theim • The Hon’ble Sawbwa of Mangpawn (Shan)
• Asinwa Nawng (Kachin)
• Pu Vum Ko Hau (Zomi)
• Saw Sankey (Karen)

The members immediately started the work, collecting the opinions of the representatives and witnesses. They found that the majority of the people were in favour of the establishment of a federation type of administration. Another aspect of the recommendation of the Commission was the right of secession. It stated that any state of the Union of Burma has the right to secede at any time. This part of the recommendation was also accepted by the Constitution of Burma (1947). Article 201 of the Constitution of the Union of Burma states,

“Every state shall have the right to secede from the Union of Burma under the following conditions.

“202. The right of secession shall not be exercised within ten years from the date on which this Constitution comes into operation.

“203.(i) Any state wishing to exercise the right of secession shall have a resolution to that effect passed by its State Council. No such resolution shall be deemed to have been passed unless not less than two-thirds of the total numbers of the State Council concerned have voted in its favour”.

(ii) The Head of the State concerned shall notify the President of any such resolution passed by the Council and shall send him a copy of such resolution certified by the chairman of the Council by which it was passed”.

The Independence Treaty was signed on the 17th October, 1947. It was endorsed by the British Parliament on the 10th December, 1947. After this the British withdrew from Burma and on the 4th January, 1948 Burma attained independence.


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Hmar Hnam Economics Ngirhmun

By Zosanglien Zote

(A) THUHMAHRUOI : Khawvel a ei um sungin fak le dawn zawngna le sungkuo khawsak na dingin sum le pai tamtak ei mamaw a. Ei sum mamaw ruokchu ei khawsakdan standard zirin sungkuo tin hai hi an angnaw vieu el thei . Hmar hai hluo chin ram : Vangai tlang , Hmar biel, Tuiruong dung, Tuithaphai, Lakhipur phai le Cachar tlangrama khuo iemani zat, Haflong le NC Hills tlangrama khuo danghai,Mizoram hmartieng panga khuo umhai hi khuo tamtak ka hmuta hnung le fangta anni leiin a mipui chenghai sum laklut dan le khawsak dan hai hi mi in an mi hril hriet ringawt nilovin ka tawnhriet a um nuol ve ta a. A tlangpui thuin Hmar hai hluo chin ram ( Hmar ram hang ti bik deu hlek inla ) a ei khawsakna hi midang nekin an hnuoilem hret hin ka hriet hlak a,a khawvel pumpui le ei kawl le kieng hnamhai hmasawn ruola hma eisawn ve nawna san le ei insiemthatna ding ni awma ka hriethai thil ieng ieng iemani hril nuom ka nei ve leiin le hi ka ngaidan hi in mi lo intawm pui ve a iemani bek hmasawnna a umtak duoiin ti beiseina insangtak le hi article hi ka hung buotsai ani.

Literature tieng thiemmi kani naw leiin ngaidan tamtak ka nei hai hi a hmatiema, mumal neitaka, mi tiem nuom zawngtaka remkhawm ka thiem naw a , in hruoi nenga ka ziek hlak ruok hi chu in mi ngaithiem ka nuom.

(B) PATHIEN CONDEMN EINI NAWH :Mi tamtak chun , ‘ Hmarhai chu State tina indarsar neng nung a um , mani ram khawm neizo lo, thingtlang ram a cheng eini a , ei ram del le Politics a ei ngirhmun an hnuoi em leiin hang hmasawn ziezang chi in ni lova’ tiin ngaidan ei nei khawm ani el thei. Pathienin inhnuoi bik ding le changkang ngailo reng reng dinga ‘ Condemn’ hnam ami siem ang hrima inngai pawl khawm ei um thei bawk. Andikna chin khawm a um el thei a , amiruokchu ei vangneina le mi hnam haiin an mi phaknawna tamtak um hi eingaituo ngainaw lei chau khawm ani el thei bawk.A hnuoia hin hnam danghai neka ei vangneina lien deu deu hang tarlang tum ei tih :-

1) Ei unau hnam thenkhat hai chu an umna ram le hmun an angnaw leia sakhuona hran hranin a thedar an um mek laiin eini chu za a za Kristien eini a, hi khawvel kheltienga chatuona hringna beiseituhai vawnga ei umthei leihin ei vangnei hle ani. Tuipui rala inthawkin ei neka hnam changkang le hrat tamtak fekana eini kher kher chanchintha in a mi hung elvar bik neka vangneina nasalem hi a um thei di’m ani ?

2) Ei vangnei em em na chu ei reng deuthawin India rama ei um thei hi ani. Ei unau hnam thenkhat hai chu a then India rama, a then Myanmar a, a then Bangladesh a an um ani. India ram , democracy ngaisangtu le mimal zalenna ngaisangtu rama ei um hi ei vangnei hle ani. Ei duthusamin ei hnam puolin State neinaw inla khawm India rama citizen haiin ‘ right’ mumal taka ei neisengna rama um eini leiin ei umna khuo hai seng hi ei ‘ ta’ anni a,dan ang thlap lem chun tukhawma an mi hnawtsuok thei ngawt naw ( Ei neka ralhrat lem le huoisen lem haiin dan ang nilova dannaw anga anmi hnawt suok el hlak hi chu thuhran nisien).

Tuta ei umdan pangngai a hin chu ka ditdan nekin ei umna senga hin eiin suk mikhuol deu hlek niin ka hriet hlaka. Hmarhai lai a Sawrkar sin thawtu hai khawmin mani ram sinthaw nilovin tuhai ram amani a sin thaw, inhlawfa ang deuva ei inngai taluo deu hlek niin ka hriet hlak.A theisung chu leave laka , run dala thaw a , mani sin a ringumna le taimakna nei derlo mihriem kha mi chethei le ropuia ei ngai ani chun ( ei Pathien thu le ankal leiin) hnam ropuitaka suok ngai naw mani.Ei umna state senga le ei sinthawna senga insuk chawngpu inla, ei umna khuohai hi ei dam khawma ei thi khawma ei umna ding ani ti a hin chieng inla thatak in ka hriet. Chuong chu nilova, khawlai rammi amani ang deuva inngai a ,mani khuo a mikhuol ang deuva inhrie a , hnatlang le ilo nikhuo a khawm inthawk tha pei raklo, khawtlang tading a hamthatna iemani sawrkara inthawka a hung khawm lo fahmang tu le mani sungkuo bing hamthatna ding chauva hmang hlaktu hai lem hi chu ei dova, khuo / hnam hmelma anni ti a hin ei chieng hle a hunta bawk.

(C) FAK LE DAWN ZAWNGNA A EI RAM VANGNEI BIKNA : Mi thiemhai chun fak le dawn zawngna awlsam, ram hmasawnna dinga hmangruo pawimaw a anhril hlak hieng : a) raw material b) infepawna lampui c) market tha tihai hi a chunga ei tarlang ta Hmarhaiin ei del chin rama khin a um tha deu vawnga . Hiengang ramtha le remchang del , ringtu ni bawksi hi iengtinam ei rethei vieu ana ti hi thilmaktak niin an langa , ngaituo tham a um a ni. A hnuoia hin ei ram del chungchanga ei vangneina lien deu deu hai hang tarlang tum ei tih :-

1 ) Ei ram a lan thawl hle : India ram hmun dang ngaituoin Hmarhai del chin rama hin thil hang thaw ( thlai ching / ran vai / lo nei / huon nei ) tum tadingin ram a lan thawl hle ani. Hmar khuo tamtaka chun khawtlang thuoituhai hrietpuina in man ummang lo khawma mani enkawlding ram chu nei el thei ala ni. Chuongang ema awlsawm ani naw khawmin bul hang tanna ding pawisa neihai tading lem chun ramman hi ala tlawm khawp el.India ram hmundanga , abiktakin khawpui a hai lem chu , ram le tui man hi ansang hle a, eini del chin ramhai neka ram le tui awlsamna hi a vang ta khawp el. ( Mizoram thingtlang khuo a hai khawm hin ram le tui man chu an sang vieu antah) . Iengkhawm nisien ei hril nuom dan chu patlingin tum ren rawn pui taka a nei chun ram le tui ( a lien tam a chin tam ) hang nei ve hrim hrim chu ei rama hin la awlsam tak sien a hawi vieu ani.

2 ) Ei ram a la tha : Ei pi le pu haiin an hunlaia ram thatdan chanchin an mi hril chun bu tin khat hmun a tin 400 / 500 an thlo dawk thu ani rawp hlak.Vawisun hin hieng ang ram hi khawlai khawm a um tanaw ani el thei.A pawimaw tak chu ramin ra tha insuo dinga enkawlna tieng tienlai nekin ei taimak zuol deu angai ta tina ani. Hmarhai del ram khawlai khuo a khawm bawngek hin man a nei bek bek ka hriet ngai naw a, a lakkhawm taimak a , mani rama phul / chap pei kha hnuoi thatna chu ani el naw am ani? Ringna a ei entawn tak Israel hai hman an ram thlaler rama tui le hnuoi thatna pekfawm vawngin thlai chi hran hran mi rama thawnsuok chur chur khawp an ching thei chun ei ram chu Bible a Kanan ram a hril hlak neka a thatnaw lemna iem a um chuong a ? Israel rama tuifinriet tui sukfim fawm ngai nek chun ei rama tuiruong / vadung / tlang le tlang inkara tuihnar tamtak a inthawka tui laksuok a, thlai in a mamaw ang peia tui pekdan ngaituo a pek el hi a awlsam lem vieu naw maw ? Mi ram , mi chengna inhawi le ropui deu hlek dinga ngai hi tienlai a inthawk khawm khan mihriem mizie hi alo ni ve reng reng ta hlak a ( a saptawngin : the grass is greener on the other bank), chu mizie ei la fepui lei chun mi ram hi thalem le inhawi lem a ei ngai mei mei niin an lang.

Ei khawsung a mani a ram ei neisa ngei kha chei thain ra thalem le hlawklem insuo dinga hma ei laka ei enkawl bak kha khawlai hmuna khawm thildang a um taktak chuong naw a, tu ram khawm hi ei ram neka thalem a um chuong naw ti kha ei hriet zing ka nuom.

3 ) Infepawna a tha : India hmarsak a hmun tamtak a chenghai buoina chu an thlai themsuoksa zawr na hmun pan dingin tha le tangka tamtak seng angai hlak hi ani. Hmun tamtak a lem chu a thlai man nekin a zawrna hmun panpuina man a to lem hlak leiin a kawl le kieng a an zawr bak chu a sie tawp mei mei hlak ani.

A biktakin Mizoram thingtlang khuo ( Hmarhai del chin nilo) hieng Aizawl a inthawka sak , thlang le simtieng pang hi an buoi nawk zuol hlak ani.Hmarhai delchin ram a Tuiruong sawrtheihai hi kawnga hin chu an vangnei zuol hle a, hmundanghai khawm vai fe phak nawna taluo a umnaw leiin a tlangpui thuin a harsa taluo bek bek chuongin an lang nawh.

Mi thiem hai chun thuomhnaw phurna man ( transportation cost) hi tui lampuia a tlawmtak a, relin a dawta, chu dawt a motor lamlien, vuongna a a to tak ani anti. Hmarhai Tuiruong le vadung dang sawrthei hai lem chun man tlawm titiin an thuomhnaw kha a zawrna hmun an inthlung tir thei zung zung a , hmun danga lonei mihai neka an vangnei lem zie hi an inhriet am aw ? Infepawna le thlai zawrna hmun pan awlsam hi a pawimaw em leiin , ei umna khuo kha ngaituo vang vanga , ei thlai themsuok hai zawrna a harsa deuhlek chun a zawr inhawina khuoa ei inpem a bul eitan thatnawk khawm hi a hun el ta thei. Inpem awlsam taluot hi a thatnaw ruolin thlakhla ding um thaklo khuo a umzing khawm hi changkang nawna bul hi chu ani ve hrim hrim.

4 ) Market hmun a hnai : India rama thingtlang khuo a chenghai harsatna lientak chu an thlai themsuoksa zawr na umlo hi ani. Hmarhaiin ei del thingtlang khuo hai hi hang ngaituo vang vang khawmin ei thil themsuokhai zawrthei derlo na hmun hi a vang khawp el. Ei thlai themsuok a tamdeu hlek lem chun fepui ngailovin a hmuna vaiin an hung khar vawng hlak dam kha ani a, market a buoi bek bek ei um naw in an lang.Haflong le a sevel, Lakhipur phai le tuiruong dunga ha lem chu ei ching a ei enkawl khawm nilo , ramhnuoia thilsuok e.g. hnachangvui, tingdawn, hnathiel hna chenin zawr theinaw tak tak khawm a um naw a, suna rama fepei tadingin zantieng pawisa a inchangtir thei deu vawng ani. Hiengang khawpa ram hnienghnar le market thatna ei del hi ei vangnei hle ani.

5 ) Inchukna tha hmun a hnai : A chunga ei vangneina ei ziekta hai popo khi hmang tangkai a , ei khawsakna a hmasawnna taktak inthlungtir theitu ding chu inchukna chau hi ani. Miin thawklekhata a ring le a suongtuona in a phak bak dai pawisa hmu thut sienla khawm a hmang tangkai amani a sukpung nading lungvar a nei si naw chun thil ho meimei a an chang rawp hlak ani. Hi article ziektu ngei khawm hin ka mi hriet tamtak hai lem chun an hmang tangkainaw el ni lovin an mimal baka an sungkuo khawmiin a sietpui lem hiel hlak ani. Hmarhaiin ei del thingtlang khuo hai hi hang ngaituo vang vang inla inchukna thatna hmun ei hlat bek bek tawl naw a ni.

Vangnei chunga vangnei nawksawngna in Pathienin a min thuom a, mi tu el khawm inchukna insang hnawtnuom tuhai tadingin College hran hran a Tribal quota le inhrietthiemna insangtak sawrkarin a mi pek baka sungkuo harsa hai tadingin Scholarship le Loan hai dam ala um nawk pei a.Inchuk insang nuom ngawi ngawi taima bawksi, thiemthei bawksi chun a lampui khawm hi eila dap thei pei nisien an lang. Ei umkhawm deuna hmun ei hang zieksuoktahai khi inchukna insang ei hnawtna kawnga mi suk hnawk thei khawpa kilkhawr khuo a um nawh.

6 ) Tawng ei thiem : Tulai khawvelin a buoipui chu mihriem, hnam le tawng hran hran inkara inbiekpawna hmangruo ‘ Tawng ‘ thiem le thiemlo hi ani tah. Inchukna amani Sumdawngna kawnga hmasawn ding chun mihai le ei inbiekpaw thei angai a, ei inbiekpaw theinaw chun tui luonglo ang kha eini ding ani leiin hmasawn a harsa hle ding ani.Hmarhai ei vangnei bekbekna chu ei unau hnam dang hai nekin midang tawng ei thiem zung zung a , ei umna taphawt a hnamdang hai le inbiekpawna a harsatna ei nei ngainaw. Hihi ei ngaituo chieng nuom chun Pathien malsawmna lieu lieu niin ka hriet hlak.

Khi a chunga ei tarlang Pathien malsawmna le vangneina ei dawng zozai hai khi ei phu ve hrimhrim lei khawm ani chuongin ka hriet ngai naw a, thuthlung thara Krista thisen zara tlinglo le fello sa sa a ‘Ringtu’ eini lei khawm ani el thei.

(D) EI CHANGKANG SI NAWH : Amiruokchu, khieng lawm lawma vangnei , umna hmun infuk, tawngthiem nisi chu mimal le sungkuo thenkhat changkang taktak um inla khawm ( tu mimal le sungkuo bik chanchin amani kha ei hril tum ani naw leiin ) Hmarhai hi a tlangpuiin ei changkang si naw anih. Ei changkang naw hrim hrim ti a indeusaw ding bik tukhawm ei umnaw a , ei changkang nawna hai hi ei hril teu lem chun mani le mani mawng inhlim chau kha eini ding ani.

Chuleiin tuta ei thlung phak chen hi a tha a ngai inla , mimal ( ei lekhathiem hmasa hai amani , ram thuoitu politician hmasahai amani ei kohran thuoitu hai amani ) tukhawm intum ding zawng bik lovin a nawlpuiin Hmarhai ei renga ei hmasawnna ding awma ka hriet le ngaituona ka lo seng vena a inthawka ka lo invawi ve hlak hai a hnuoi a hin ka hung inzawt ve ding ani. Bible thiem kani naw leiin a bung le a chang chu sie diet diet thei naw langkhawm ei Bible a hin tuta ka hung hril ding hai hi a um vawngin ka hriet.:-

1 ) Pocket money a sum ei hmang tam bik hle : Kum iemani zat sawrkar sin ka thaw hnunga India ram hmun tin hmun tang ka fang hnung a ka hriet suok chu Hmarhai hin ei sum themsuok le inphu a ngaituo in Pocket Money eiti sum hmang meimei, thil tangkai inchawkna ni raklo a hin sum ei hmang tamtak el awm de aw ka ti hlak. Entirna’n : Ei insung a sungkuo a ei fak ei dawn thei zing thingpui le a hme ti mei mei thingpui dawr khera dawn le fak ei ching chun a sawt a seia chun sum ei hmang liem kha a tam hle ding tina ani. Ei inzin chang le lo thei lo chang chu a um ve bawk a , amiruokchu insung amani ei khuo a ei um lai zinga thingpui dawr kher kher ei ngaina ani chun changkangna lampui chu ei hraw naw kati na ani.

Thingpui dawr le Pocket Money chu ei lo hmang hlak ani khawmin midang dang ‘ Khilai ‘ dur dur hi an ching chi naw nawk zuol a. Aizawl khawpuia Office a Pathien zara cheng singhni chuong hlaw thal mi panga room khata kumli sung nitin le sunnithlak deuthaw a kan inthung khawmin nauhai pass lawm nikhuo tinaw a chu thingpui kan in khilai khawm ka hriet ngai naw. Mani sengin ei dawn le fakman chu ei pek el khan insuk milien nawna khawm ani chuongin kan hriet nawh. Milien le michin, pawisa nei le neilo inkhina chu thingpui dawra thingpui order hem hem kha nilovin inhmun amani thil tangkai tak inchawk thei le theinaw nikhuo a hin ani lem naw ding amani ?.

2 ) Hawp le hmuom a sum ei hmang tam hle : Hawp le hmuom, ti taktaka chu a thanglo khawma ei um thei , hieng : Kuva, Biri, Sikret,Dumziel, Khaini , Sada, Zarda a hin ei sum thawsuok ngaituoin eiin hmang nasa thei hle. Hienghai hi hriselna tadinga thalo vawng anni ti hi hrechieng hle inla khawm a thatnaw dan le taksa tadinga a pawi thei dan kimchang chu Doctorhai subject ani leiin an ziek thiemlem dai ka ringa.Khawpna taktak inthlungtir thei chi nisi lova pawisa seng hieu hieuna ani ti ruok hi chu ei chieng hle ani.

Sungkuo tamtak chun hawpding le hmuomding hi bu le hme ang deuthaw in an ngaipawimaw ta a, hawp le hmuom nghei chu bunghei nek khawmin rinum anti lem ta hiel ani. Hiengang sungkuo le mimal hi eilo ni pal chun mi vangduoitak eini ta a, mi tamtak sum sengnawna a ei sum ei seng tan bak a , hieng hawp le hmuomin a phursa natna chi hran hran kha ei hmabak mek ani ti kha ei hriet ka nuom bawk.

Hieng hawp le hmuom haihi kalo thaw tasa deu vawng anni a,a thatnaw zie ka hriet leiin vawisun hin chu Pathien zarin ka lo bansan thei ta leiin ka lawm hle. A nghei dan ding ‘ Formula’ tukhawm ka hril thei naw cheuva, amiruokchu hawp le hmuom nghei leia thi der ta tukhawm ei la hriet naw leiin ngheidan awlsam tak chu ‘ thawlo ‘ kha ani ringawt el ani.

Hawp le hmuom ei hril ruol hin hrilsa ngei ngei ding chi chu zu le sa hi ani.Hi hi ngat lem hi chu ei thaw chun sungkuo khawsakna a thosuok a harsa hle a ni. Zu hin chapona a hringdawk ngei ngei leiin mi chapohai hnukthla ngeingeitu ei Pathien kut ei tuor hlak niin an lang. Zu dawn a a thatzie hrilmawi fawm nek chun dawnlo khan ei mawi lem vieu zing ani ti kha ei hrietchengsa ani kha.

3 ) Indiklo taka hausa / khawsathei ei ngaisang : Ei ram sunga hin Sawrkar sinthaw, Politician, Kohran thuoitu, Sumdawngmi etc. hai lai indiknaw taluo a hausa / khawsathei ei um nuol ta. Hril tam rak khawm ngailovin mi hnam hai lai khawm an um annawm eiti el thei. Andikna chin khawm um ata, amiruokchu, ei ram / hnam sunga thalo deuva ka hriet hlak chu khangang indiknaw taka thawhlaktuhai kha mi indiktak rethei si hai neka ei ngaisang lem el bakah khawtlang le hnam thil / organization chen hai a chawimawi le dawmsang ei ching hi ani.

In khuo a sawrkar zirtirtu, Sikul kai ngailo, naupangin thiemna anneina ding kawnga thahnemngaina sete khawm neilo, hlaw ruokchu inkhel lova la , Saptawng kawi hni / khat a thaw thei leiin ‘HSA’ thuoitu challanga vawi iengza’m inthlang ta a?. Annawleh ,Sawrkar a thangna nei, sawrkarin a siena khuo a khawm fe pei lo , hlaw ruokchu la zing zing, Pathien thu a hriet ve zul leiin Kohran Upa / thuoitu a mi iengzat chie am in thlang ta a? Annawleh, mi tuamani, a thawtak le a hlaw zat khawm hriet ni mang lo, invak invak hlak, sinthaw peilo, mi hlem zeu zeu hlak mi iengzat chie am in khawtlang thuoitu a in thlang ta a ? Hril ding le ziekdan ding tamtak a um thei a, ei article a sei taluo naw na dingin dittawk tum ei ti.

Ringtu hnam nibawk si,hiengang mihriem dawmsanga, chawimawi a , milai a nina challang deu deu pek ei ching pei a , hnam ropui le changkang ni ei tum bawk si chun ei tumna le ei fena lampui an kawkal ani ti kha kalo ngaituo ve dan ani.

4 ) Mi Indik ei vang tan ta : Hmar khuo a khawsa mek eini chun hi article hi ei tiem chie a ei ngaituo nghal dingin indawnna hang siem eiti ; In khuo a Kohran Upa / Kohran thuoitu hai laia mi a tutak amani kha Kohran sum kawltu ( Treasurer ) a hmang ta inla , nawia khat khawm a bo a bang umlova kawl him hmak ding Kohran Upa / Kohran thuoitu iengzat chie am la um anta ? Kohran sum a kawl sukbuoi ngai derlo Kohran Upa / Kohran thuoitu tadingin lawmman siem ding ni inla a dawngthei ding ei tlawm vieu ta in an lang.Kohran sum , Ama ringtuhaiin Thlarau Thienghlim inhriettirna a Pathien ram lienpeina ding ti a thahnemngaitaka anfak an dawn le an thuom le bil sik sika an thawkhawm sa lo sukbuoitu le fahmangtu Kohran Upa / Kohran Thuoitu eini chun vawisun chena ei hringna hla a ala um hi Pathien zangaina tawpkhawk ani.Ei Pathien hi Phuba lahlaktu ani bawk leiin ‘ Ti ‘ ruokchu a um hle ani .Kohran sum takngiel khawm ei inza zo tanaw lei hin Pawl hieng VC, ‘HSA’, Party le khawtlang sumhai lem chu indiktaka vawng kha a harsa pei ta niin an lang.

Sungkuo tinin ei khawsakna dinga sum le pai ei zawngna kawnga khawm hin indiktaka chan nek chun indiknaw deuhleka hlawkna a um thei ding chun ei in tel rin tanaw pei bawk niin an lang. Indiknaw taka ei thaw a ei hmu khawm kha sungkuoin a hang thatpui luoi thei ding law law nisien chu indiknaw seng senga a zietak la um khawmin ka hriet hlak. Pathien thu le Thlarau Thienghlim sinthaw eiti tak khawm hi lam amani, hlasak inhnik le Pathien thu hril rakrak tiengpang hin ei fepui nasa deu hlek a. Hienghai neka inbul lem Indikna , Ringumna , Taimakna le Hmangaina hai hi ei tlasam si chun ei Pathien thu khan ei hringnun a umzie nei tak takin sin a thaw thei ngai naw alo nilem hlak. Chuleiin Indikna , Ringumna , Taimakna le Hmangaina hai hi kunghmui chela chel el khan Thlarau Thienghlim thangpuinain thildang hi chu ‘automatic’ a hung um lem ding niin ka hriet.

5 ) Thil tlo le det ei ngaisak naw deu : Hmar khuo tamtak ei en chun a kawl le kieng hnamdanghai le inhlat bek bek raklovin eiin umpawl nawk vawng hlak a .Hilai khuo a hin tuam a um hmasa tiin hang sui inla ei pi le puhai kha a um hmasatak anni naw khawmin a hmasa pawl anlo ni hlak. Chuong nisiin huon lo ram, leilet tha le a ram remchang lai lai a reng deurthawin hnam danghai ta ani a, eini chu a kila rem le remnaw in ei khawsa hlak ani. Hihi a san lientak pakhat chu ei pi le puhai khan thil la hung tangkai / tlo / det kha anlo ngaituop tlawm deu ani. Ei thlatuhai dem rak khan umzie anei naw vieu laiin vawisuna thangthar Hmarhai hin thil tlo /det kha ei la ngaisak naw pei niin an lang.

Eini laia sum intel thadeu hlek hai khawm hin khawpuia inhmun, sumdawngna ding motor , huon lo ram, leilet , nauhai lekha inchukna a sum hmang nek chun invak meimei na , ruoi the, insuk milien, nuhmei pasal nun chenna le zu le sa etc. a haihin sum ei khawral nuom bik deu hlek niin ka hriet.

6 ) Ei fakzawngna a hmasawn atul : Hmar thingtlang khuo a hai hin papui tamtak, lekha inchuk sang le inchuk sangnaw le , ngaidan thing le inhnuoi deu deu nei eila tam.A ram sin amani ramhnuoi a va huot tuntun chi hai po ei thawding awm taka ngai a , tlawmte a khawl thil iemani deu hlek hai a kawr le vaihai chan ding deuva siena eila nei hi peihawn a hun tah. Ei rengin lekha inchuk sangin Officer, Sawrkar thangna nei vawng eiti tina ani nawh. Ei mipui tamdan a inkhi hin hieng Puonthui, Driver, Mistiri, Motor mechanic, TV / Radio / Sana / Tape etc.siem tihai le a dang dang a hin ei thahnem naw hle a , mi hnam hai thawding deuva ei sie lei hi nitakin ka hriet. Tulai Sawrkar sin hung vang peia lem hin chu hieng tiengpang hi uor inla, hausakpui ler lur ding a um naw khawmin lungril nei deu hlek tading lem chun khawsakthei na vawng anni ti kha ei hrietzing ka nuom.

Ran khawm hi tlawmte te hin ei vai seng a , a khawsathei deu haiin sinpui deu hleka neia, hang vai tam deu hlek a, khawsakna hang suksang pei tum khawm hi ei tam bekin ka hriet nawh.

7 ) Lungril bulbal neilo ei tam : Hmarhai laihin lungril bulbal mumal tak , tum renrawn nei ei tam naw hlein ka hriet hlak.Ruolhaiin an keipharna tieng tieng a inhem ve meimei, ruol an suoldeu le suol deu, ruol an tha deu le tha deu hnam dang hai laikhawm hin an um tho khawmin eini laihin ei tam zuol bik deu niin ka hriet. Thangthar lekha inchuklai amani loneimi , iengang sinthaw mi khawmin tum renrawn insawn meimei loding einei kha ei hlawtlingna ding bul ani ti kha ei hriet ka nuom nawk zuol.

8 ) Aisanthiem, dawihiem sawr eirin naw : Ei thil inhmang zawng ding dam, natna khir deu eituok chang dam hin dawithiem, aisanthiem ruoi ei ching ta vieu niin an lang a. Ei Pathien thu le inkal ti hrezing si a , Kohran upa dam, Kohran thuoitu danghai dam a ruoi hrat hrat ei um ta niin an lang a , a pawi tak meu ani.Thuthlung hluia Israel ram tluksiet ding vel laia an umdan le vawisuna ei umdan hi a danglam naw vieu el thei ani. Ringtu inti siin Pathien malsawmtlakin ei hring am tihi inngaituo nawn nawk ei tiu.

(E) INDIN THAR NAWK EITIU : Khi a chunga ei thilziek a inthawk khin Hmar nauhaiin hma ei sawnna dinga ei thaw ngei ngei ngai dam, ei bansan ngei ngei ding chi dam ei ziek teu ta a. A ziek le a hril an hawi ruol hin a taktak in thlungtir chu thil harsatak ani el baka daltu tamtak a um hlak ti kha ei hriet bawk ani.

Khuo pakhat a hin Hmar papui pakhat hi a um a, sungkuo chawmna dingin a ni hisapin (daily rate) an hlawfa hlak a .Inhlawna ding a hmu nawni chun an sungkuo chu bunghei a ngai pei deuthaw ani.Ama chu taima emem le a sinthawna a inpe zo emem mi ania , sungkuo khawsakna hang suk changkang le hma hang sawn khawm hi a chak thei vieu a. An sungkuo khawsak hma hang sawnna dingin huon hang siem hai khawm hi a nuom hlak a, amiruokchu thlai ching huna hin thlai chi manding takngiel khawm anei ngai naw ani.Kum a hung invawia , a kumnawk khawm chun inhlawfak bawkin bul a tan a , inhlawfak in kum a suo nawk hlak ani. A suol lei le a felnaw lei khawm nibik chuong lovin a huntaka hma hang lak na dingin ‘ Capital’ anei ngang naw ani.

Hmarhai ei in suk changkang a , hma eisawn vieu amani ei tilai hin ei hnampui hai mi iengzat tak am, a biktakin thingtlang khuo a hai, a chung a papui pakhat chanchin ei ziek ang hi an um ding? Ngaituo chieng ngam khawm ani nawh.Khi a chunga ei bansan ding le ei thaw ding ei ziekhai khin a chanchin ei ziek papui pa hi a tuomdam zo am ? A tuomdam zo naw el thei ani.

Ei hnampui hai hunsawttaka inthawka retheina khura intangmek hai hin thu tha taktak le sermon ropui tak tak hi an mamaw zawng ni kher naw ni. Tu kuom a khawm pawisa a thlawna in thangpui tawp hi ka hril mawi ngai nawh. A thlawn tawpa sum le pai le thil tha ei dawng hi ei hmang tangkai ngai meu naw a, inrimna le harsatna thanglova ei lamsuok tangkai raklova eiin luongral tir mei mei hlak hi mihriem mizie ani ve hrim hrim.Mi hnamhai khawm an bang chuongin ka hrietnawh.

Chuleiin ei mipui hai hin a hunlai tak ( entirna ‘n ; thlai chi thlak hun laitak) a a pung rate mumal deu hlek a ( entirna’n : Bank haiin mi pawisa an inpuktirna rate pangngai ) pawisa inpuktirtu hi an mamaw niin ka hriet. Chu ding chun Bangladesh a Chittagong University economics Professor nihlak Mohammed Yunus a kutsuok Bangladesh Grameen Bank hai thil thawdan ( Model ) hin ka lungril ngaituona a lak hle ani.

Ei thuziek a sei taluo nawna dingin Grameen Bank chanchin chu tawite chauvin hang hril tum inla.Bangladesh a mirethei tawpkhawk hai ( sungkuo nu anni deu tak) kha pawisa tlawmte te ( cheng sangthum le sangnga inkar ) inpuktir anni a ( micro – credit). Chu an pawisa puk chu insungin sumdawngna chite te (entirna’n : ar vai,varak vai etc) le thlai chi mana hmangin a sukpung dan an zawng a.An rethei vieu leiin hang sie kham ding ( mortgage) iengkhawm annei naw a. An pawisa puk chu sungkuo nu sawm vel pei a a group a insiemin an inhrietpui tawl a, nupui sawm ruol velin an hrietpuina tak kha a guarantee laitak chu ani el a . Iengleiin amani mi pakhat khan lo rul thei tanaw sien an thei angang a in rul pui dingin an intiemkam bawk a . An hang tantir chun mi tamtakin an pawisa sem kha an hmukir an ring naw baka a scheme hrimhrim kha a hlawtling an ringnaw khawp el a. Amiruokchu , vawisun hin a hlawtling zie khawvela an thangsuok ta a, za peia sawmkuo panga neka tamin an pawisa bat hai ( Bank rate pangngai a a pung thangsain ) an rul vawng baka mi maktaduoi telin an sawrta a , retheina khurpui a inthawka inlaksuokna hmangruo in an lo hmang ta ani. A thil thaw that khawvelin a hriet leiin Mohammed Yunus chun Kum 2006 Nobel Peace Price a lo dawng ta hiel ani kha.

Bangladesh a ringnawtu hai laia scheme hlawtlingtak hi ei ram ringtu za a za laihin a hlawtling ei ring am? Rul thei si rulnuom lo lui chu a ruoltha sawm velzet laia a tuitla tanaw ding baka tangka tlawmte leikhan a hming suksietin um ata, kha Bank a inthawk khan pawisa puk thei ta bawk ngai naw ni. Midangin iengang khawmin ngai haisienla kei chun ei rama khawm ala hlawtling theiin ka ring tlat ani. Le , tuinam bul atan ding ? Chu Bank a chun mi puk dingin tuin am pawisa a deposit ding? Hmar Grameen Bank / Hmar Rural Bank / Hmar People’s Bank /Hmar Community Bank / Hmar Mipui Bank – a hming chu iengtapo khawm nisien hawng dingin tuin am ke pen a ta ?

Ke pen tuding awma inlang hai :1) Bank dan le dun , a policy ding le a Bank in zawmpui ding, Reserve Bank of India a inthawka Licence lo buoipuitu dingin Delhi a ei mithiemhai (pensioner, sawrkar sinthaw le lekha inchukmek hai) . 2) Initial Capital chu eini laia sawrkar thangna nei le mi tlawmte a a khawsakna pangngai deu le ei Kohranhai a inthawk hin eithei angin deposit lakkhawm tum eitih. 3) Puktu le thawktu :- Sum tlingkhawm sa puktu ding le a thawktu ding tiengpang kha chu buoina umrak dingin ka ring nawh.

Ei hril tasa ang khan sum puktu ding khawm hi a nuom nuom le an chu hrat hrat in an puk theiin ei siem chun tha kher naw nih.Insung pakhata sawrkar thawktu um lo, eini laia khawm a sungkuo rethei bik, thosuokna lampui um lo ani ngei ding ani. Chubaka, ar vai, vawkvai, thlai chi man , huon a hun taka thlona man ding etc. scheme mumaltak a puktu ding khan anei phawt ding ani. Chu thil chu Bank thawktuin endik phawt ata, pawisa sanction tak tak chu depositor le shareholder haiin ei thlangsuok Managing Board anni ding ani. A hlawtling thei taktak ei ring am ? Pathien condemn hnam eini bik naw leiin kei chu a hlawtling thei ngei hi ka ring tlat ani.

Eimi le sa ,ei hnampui, Hmarnau kani intihai mi iemani zatin hi khawvel damsung tawite, rethei bakbera eihmang liem hlakna ngirhmuna inthawka ei intalsuok thei a, mi hnam hai anga khawsak pangngai ve deuva ei khawsak vena ni ding hi nghakhla a um ta khawp el a. Pathienin rem ati a, khawvel la umpei a, eidam ala sawt le , hi ei suongtuona hi ala puitling el thei ani.Thawthei dang einei naw khawmin ei umna hmun senga ei ring Pathien kuoma hieng ang ni hung inhersuok dingin tawngtaina einei hlak ei beiseiin ei infiel ni raw se.

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Slinging Contradictions

By David Buhril

In a recent conference on “State Violence and Women: Survivors, Defenders and Leaders”, organised by The Other Media in Delhi, various women’s organisation from the disturbed areas of North East as well as Jammu and Kashmir expressed shared concern on the growing militarisation that impacted women miserably. Human rights violations, which is illustrative of the situation in these region, was discussed at length. Demilitarisation was collectively seen as the viable solution to check the excesses of human rights violations.

While the negativities of “acute militarisation” was heavily stressed, followed by uncontested resolution for demilitarisation, there are also growing voices from the same disturbed compartments that demands for militarisation. These voices were hardly raised or represented in the hallowed seminars and conferences. The “disturbed areas” has stirred a more disturbing situation where representations on the various issues that it confronts failed to be collective. Meanwhile, Defence Minister’s firm stand on having no immediate intention to repeal AFSPA would enhance the tone of these ex-pressions to gain conflicting momentum. The persisting realities, if it continue with all its negativities would not only involved the state forces as perpetrators, but also the non-state armed actors too. That will become a point where concern for demilitarisation would also be followed by equal concern for militarisation. Manipur stands in the crossroad where the civil societies are cornered to identify which of the necessary evil would suit them. The Leviathan could not help much, but watched the other actors run a parallel government in the growing liberated zones despite the democratic staple of elections with questionable suffrage system. Faced with this, the demand is for demilitarisation as well as militarisation too.

In the early part of 2006, Hmar organisations demands for the presence of security forces and in some it demands for permanent military post in several Tipaimukh villages in Churachandpur, Manipur. Similarly, various Kukis organisations have been continuously demanding for the setting up of permanent military bases at New Samtal and Khengjoi block in Manipur’s Chandel district. Moreover, Mani Charenamei, MP, Outer Manipur, after visiting Moreh on June 20, 2007, met the Home Minister on July 4 and demands for securitisation of Chandel’s Moreh on the lines of the Kuki organisation demands. The MP asked the Home Minister to sent more central security forces to flush out the underground elements from the border areas and set up security camps at New Samtal, Molcham, Gamphajol and Yangonlen. His demands also include permanent stationing of central security force for maintaining law and order in Chandel’s Moreh. Not only that, the MP also demanded for replacing the IRB by the Central Security Forces. The MP said that these demands are of utmost necessity keeping in view the genuine problems of the tribal population of Chandel district in general and the Kuki’s in particular. Not only that after the rape of lactating women at T Phaijol village by militants on July 10, 2007, the Kuki Students’ Organisation immediately demand for establishing an Assam Rifles post at T Phaijol village in Churachandpur. All these voices strongly inclined towards militarisation.

There are many inescapable questions that recently grow from the affected peoples perspectives, which contradicts the otherwise growing movement for demilitarisation. While questioning that “collective representation” becomes inevitable, generalising the North East context would be a mistake, despite the shared draconian law.

Meanwhile, the joint resolution drafted by the group of women on July 8,2007 stated, “We have lost entire generations to the war unleashed by unbridled power given to the security forces…The impact on our lives over decades of militarisation has been particularly acute…We also understand that the state has encouraged non-state actors as a part of its counter insurgency operations leading to further undermining of democratic rights of people.” Their demand also includes for the repeal of AFSPA and all other draconian laws and demilitarisation in Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern states.

As conflicting voices grows, it is getting complicated to identify the real interest that would represent the people’s interest. Earlier, there were voices for the repeal of AFSPA that was followed by the same not to withdraw the army from Manipur. While the authorities are cornered to find the balancing act suitable for a more humane situation in the face of the growing movements for the repeal of AFSPA, the NGO’s, and people’s representatives are confronted with the challenge of identifying a clear stand beyond the loud assertion that it is championing. The NGO’s cannot afford to sacrifice its credibility by raising voices that goes against the interest of the people. Even though many of the seemingly representative organisations have failed to be representative of the people or the issues, the core interest of the unrepresented people cannot persist. A negotiation with the new development and changing realities has to be made so as to develop new working principles in the interest of the people that it stand to represent. The error would be to see multiplying actors with no relation to the demands and challenges of the grass rooted people.

Representative form overtakes and differentiates from the portrayal. Not only that, the techniques of form also overtakes the representative form. The question is, are we still representing or representative? The growing voices for militarisation cannot be seen as a calculated move to negate the popular movement for demilitarisation. It is not. It is rather a desperate and distressed voice. However, it raises the otherwise realities of the usually unrepresented constituencies that are negotiating the threat of the same militarisation too. What matters to them is the same issue of militarisation and its threat. The actor did not seem to matter much when the threat equally gnaws into all aspects of their life. A hesitation or a softer approach to the relative militarisation would be a botch for any activists who are straining excessively to curb state sponsored militarisation alone. A comparative look at Iraq’s alarming prospect with demilitarisation should also caution anyone to be cautious, as small arms have already flooded the disturbed areas in the North East. A long-term approach has to be whetted out by striking a balance with the peoples interest after weighing the contextual demands and challenges. Otherwise, it would be a confusing war of slinging contradictions.

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